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2017年09月21日 星期四
近期摘要
2015年第2期摘要
茶树遗传育种研究进展
梁月荣,石萌
浙江大学茶叶研究所,浙江 杭州 310058
摘要:本文从茶树育种材料创新、育种鉴定技术发展、育种目标变化、育种程序的改进、育种成果以及良种繁育与推广体系等方面综述了茶树遗传育种领域的研究进展,为进一步深入开展茶树遗传育种研究提供参考。茶树育种材料创新的手段仍然以杂交为主,理化诱变的应用日趋广泛,转基因技术有待进一步完善。高分辨率检测设备和基因鉴定技术的应用,结合计算机预测模型开发,使茶树品种早期鉴定的准确性得到提升。茶树育种目标经过了高产、优质、早生的阶段,发展到了满足多样化需求的时期。进一步提高早期鉴定准确度、缩短育种周期是茶树育种技术发展的目标。
关键词:茶树育种;鉴定技术;育种程序;育种目标;良种繁育
中图分类号:S571.1;S330           文献标识码:A          文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-103-07
 
Advances in Tea Plant Genetics and Breeding
LIANG Yuerong, SHI Meng
Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, Hangzhou 310058, China
Abstract: Advances in germplasm enhancement of tea breeding, techniques for identification of new tea cultivars, changes in breeding objectives, improvement of breeding program, achievements of tea breeding, system of propagation and extension of new tea cultivars were reviewed in this paper, which provides useful information for further studies in tea genetics and breeding. Hybridization is still the major method for innovating tea breeding materials, and the physical and chemical mutagenesis methods have been extensively used, while transgenic technique remains to be further improved. Combination of the high resolution inspecting equipments and the gene identification technology with the forecasting models established by computer technology made the early identification of tea cultivars more accurate. The breeding target has been diversified after going through yield breeding, quality breeding and early flushing breeding stages. Improving early identification accuracy and shortening breeding cycle will be the aim for tea breeding technology development.
Keywords: tea breeding, identification technique, breeding program, breeding objectives, propagation and extension

 
茶园土壤性状及茶树营养元素吸收、转运机制研究进展
刘美雅,伊晓云,石元值,马立锋,阮建云*
中国农业科学院茶叶研究所,农业部茶树生物学与资源利用重点实验室,浙江 杭州 310008
摘要:优质安全的茶叶离不开养分条件、环境安全和茶园的土、水、肥的管理。本文在茶园土壤、茶树养分功能和分子营养机制、茶树施肥技术、茶园土壤重金属及茶树累积特点和机制等方面,对近五年来国内外的研究进展进行了综述。在茶园土壤研究方面,除了关注植茶后茶园土壤有机质变化特点外,茶园碳储量在全球碳循环中所起的重要作用也引起了人们的重视,同时分子生物学技术也开始应用于茶园土壤微生物种群数量和演变的研究,并在茶园土壤质量评价、土壤酸化原因以及应用生物质改良酸化茶园土壤等方面取得了一定进展。在茶树养分功能和调控技术方面,对主要营养元素氮、磷、钾等的营养功能及其在茶叶品质成分代谢中的作用和茶树吸收特性等有了更深入的认识,在茶树养分转运子基因克隆、氮营养分子生理机制、抗环境胁迫的分子基础等方面的研究逐渐深入,在机械施肥、水肥一体化、控释肥施用等技术研究方面取得较大进展,施肥的环境效应特别是温室气体排放影响成为近年的研究热点。伴随着对食品安全问题的关注,茶叶产地土壤重金属和稀土等的安全状况、茶树累积特点等方面的研究也取得一定进展。
关键词:茶园土壤;营养功能;养分管理;施肥;分子机制;重金属
中图分类号:S571.1;S15             文献标识码:A            文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-110-11
 
Research Progress of Soil Properties in Tea Gardens and the Absorption and Translocation Mechanisms of Nutrients and Other Elements in Tea Plant
LIU Meiya, YI Xiaoyun, SHI Yuanzhi, MA Lifeng, RUAN Jianyun*
Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences, Key Laboratory for Tea Plant Biology and Resource Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou 310008, China
Abstract: The soil conditions of tea plantations as well as the management of water and fertilizers are requisites for tea plant growth and quality construction. This paper reviewed the research progresses in the recent five years on the topics of the dynamics of soil properties of tea gardens, the functions of nutrients associating with the metabolism of tea quality related components and the underneath molecular mechanisms, the management technologies of nutrition, heavy metals and rare earth elements in tea soils and their accumulation in plants. In addition to the works of the dynamics of organic matter in tea soil following the establishment of tea plantation, the contribution of carbon storage in tea ecosystems to the global C cycling has been highlighted. Molecular biological approaches are increasingly applied in the study of the community and evolvement of microbes in tea soils. Meanwhile advances in the evaluation of soil quality, the mechanism and ameliorative measures of soil acidification have been made. The recent progresses in the area of nutrition have greatly deepened our understandings of the functions of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium on the metabolism of tea quality components. The characteristics of nutrient absorption were elucidated at molecular and physiological levels and putative genes of several nutrient transporters were cloned. Adoption of mechanical fertilization, fertigation and controlled releasing chemical fertilizers were recommended as measures of nutrient management to improve utilization efficiency while the environmental impacts of fertilization such as emission of greenhouse gases gained considerable focus. On the other hand, progresses were made in the field of safety of tea products as heavy metals in the soils of tea plantations and accumulation of these elements in the tea plants are concerned.
Keywords: tea garden soil, physiological functions of nutrients, nutrition management, fertilization, molecular mechanism, heavy metal

 
黑茶香气化学研究进展
何华锋1,2,3,朱宏凯1,2,3,董春旺1,2,3,叶阳1,2,3*,桂安辉1,高明珠1
1. 中国农业科学院茶叶研究所/浙江省茶叶加工工程重点实验室,浙江 杭州 310008;2. 农业部茶树生物学与资源利用重点实验室,浙江 杭州 310008;3. 国家茶产业工程技术研究中心,浙江 杭州 310008
摘要:黑茶是我国独有的茶类,独特的渥堆工艺形成了其陈纯的香气特征。本文详尽综述了近年来黑茶香气化学研究的进展,从黑茶香气成分的化学特性方面归纳出甲氧基苯类和烯醛类化合物是黑茶独特香型的特征成分,分析了渥堆、干燥、贮藏等主要加工工艺对黑茶香气品质的影响,讨论了微生物对黑茶香气形成的影响,并指出了原料、香气提取方式等对黑茶香气分析的影响;最终提出黑茶特征性香气成分的鉴定与表征,香气骨架分子官能团的转化机理,以及微生物对香气形成的参与机制应是今后黑茶香气研究的难点。
关键词:黑茶;香气化学;综述
中图分类号:TS272.5+4             文献标识码:A            文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-121-09
 
Research Progress in Flavor Chemistry of Chinese Dark Tea
HE Huafeng1,2,3, ZHU Hongkai1,2,3, DONG Chunwang1,2,3,
YE Yang1,2,3*, GUI Anhui1, GAO Mingzhu1
1. Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/Key Laboratory of Tea Processing Engineering of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310008, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou 310008, China; 3. National Engineering Technology Research Center for Tea Industry, Hangzhou 310008, China
Abstract: As the unique kind of tea, Chinese dark tea characterize with the tasty and stale aroma which refers to the pile fermentation. This review summarized the recent progress in flavor chemistry research of Chinese dark tea. Analyzed with the chemistry property of the aroma components, derivatives of methoxyl benzene and allylaldehyde were clarified as the characteristic components of the flavor of Chinese dark tea. Subsequently, as well as microorganism, the effect of the processing procedure, such as pile fermentation, drying, storage and et al, on the aroma quality were declared. Also, the affection of the raw material and the extraction method of flavor were indicated. Therefore, separation and characterization of the characteristic flavor compounds, the transformation mechanism of the functional group on the skeleton of aroma molecular and the participation of microorganism in the formation of the flavor of Chinese dark tea will be the research topic in future.
Keywords: Chinese dark tea, flavor, review
  
EGCG对细胞的促氧化作用研究进展
陈怡君1,熊立瑰1,黄建安1,2,3,龚雨顺1*,刘仲华1,2,3*
1. 湖南农业大学茶学教育部重点实验室,湖南农业大学,湖南 长沙 410128;2. 国家植物功能成分利用工程技术研究中心,
湖南农业大学,湖南 长沙 410128;3. 植物功能成分利用协同创新中心,湖南农业大学,湖南 长沙 410128
摘要:EGCG是茶叶中主要的儿茶素类物质,具有多种生物活性。近年来,EGCG促氧化作用得到了广泛关注。本文对国内外细胞实验中EGCG的促氧化作用进行综述。EGCG在细胞培养基中发生自动氧化可以形成细胞外氧化应激环境,这种自动氧化受到培养基种类、EGCG浓度与处理时间、血清含量及pH值等因素影响。在细胞内,EGCG直接提高细胞内活性氧(Reactive Oxidative Species, ROS)和线粒体ROS,或者通过Fenton反应间接产生OH-。EGCG可以影响细胞内转录因子、信号通路与表面生长因子受体的表达与传递,从而影响细胞的一系列生命活动。
关键词:EGCG;促氧化;细胞;生物活性;自动氧化;活性氧
中图分类号:TS272;Q946.84+1          文献标识码:A         文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-130-07
 
Review on Pro-oxidative Properties of EGCG on Cell
CHEN Yijun1, XIONG Ligui1, HUANG Jian′an1,2,3, GONG Yushun1*, LIU Zhonghua1,2,3*
1. Key Laboratory of Tea Science of Ministry of Education, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; 2. National Research Center of Engineering Technology for Utilization of Functional Ingredients from Botanicals, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; 3. Collaborative Innovation Center of Utilization of Functional Ingredients from Botanicals, Hunan Agriculture University, Changsha 410128, China
Abstract: EGCG, which is the most abundant catechin in tea, has been demonstrated to possess a wide range of biochemical and pharmacological activities. Recent investigations have revealed that EGCG functions as a pro-oxidant. In this review, we discussed the pro-oxidative mechanism of EGCG in cell culture. Auto-oxidation of EGCG, influenced by the media types, dose- and time-dependent of EGCG addition, contents of serum and pH value etc., forms environmental oxidative stress in cell medium. Furthermore, EGCG produce intracellular ROS and mtROS, and trigger the Fenton reaction to create OH- indirectly. In particular, pro-oxidation of EGCG regulate intracellular transcription factors, signalling pathways, and cell surface receptor to exert many biological actions in cell.
Keywords: EGCG, pro-oxidative, cell, biological activity, auto-oxidation, reactive oxidative species

 
茶叶香气成分中芳樟醇旋光异构体的分析
杨停1, 2,朱荫1,吕海鹏1*,马成英1,张悦1,施江1, 2,刘爽1, 2,林智1*
1. 农业部茶树生物学与资源利用重点实验室;中国农业科学院茶叶研究所,杭州 310008;
2. 中国农业科学院研究生院,北京 100081
摘要:芳樟醇是茶叶中含量很高的香气成分之一,具有左旋和右旋两种光学异构体,而这两者有着完全不同的香气品质。本研究利用手性色谱柱,采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱法对绿茶和红茶中芳樟醇旋光异构体的比例进行了分析。结果表明,绿茶和红茶中都同时存在3S-(+)-芳樟醇和3R-(-)-芳樟醇两种光学异构体。供试绿茶茶样中3S-(+)-芳樟醇与3R-(-)-芳樟醇相对含量的比值(S/R)介于2.07~14.05,平均比值为5.21。表明供试绿茶样品中芳樟醇以3S-(+)-芳樟醇为主要存在形式。此外,蒸青绿茶、炒青绿茶和烘青绿茶3种不同类型绿茶中芳樟醇的两种旋光异构体的组成比例也存在很大的差异,其中蒸青绿茶中的S/R比值最低(2.72),烘青绿茶的S/R比值最高(8.05),炒青绿茶的S/R比值(4.78)介于两者之间。供试红茶茶样中3S-(+)-芳樟醇与3R-(-)-芳樟醇相对含量的比值(S/R)介于0.65~0.82,平均比值为0.74。表明红茶样品中芳樟醇以3R-(-)-芳樟醇为主要存在形式。绿茶和红茶加工过程中3S-(+)-芳樟醇和3R-(-)-芳樟醇相对含量的比例变化研究表明,在绿茶加工过程中,杀青后S/R比值达到最高,为5.78;在红茶加工过程中,发酵2 h后S/R比值达到最高,为1.59。不同茶树品种鲜叶中芳樟醇旋光异构体的S/R比值有很大差异,检测发现有的茶树品种鲜叶中的芳樟醇以3R-(-)-芳樟醇为主,如高芽齐和英红9号等,其余5个茶树品种鲜叶中的芳樟醇则以3S-(+)-芳樟醇为主。
关键词:绿茶;红茶;香气;芳樟醇;旋光异构体
中图分类号:TS272.5;Q946.8          文献标识码:A          文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-137-08

Analysis of Optical Isomers of Linalool
in Tea Aromatic Components

YANG Ting1, 2, ZHU Yin1, LYU Haipeng 1*, MA Chengying1, ZHANG Yue1,
SHI Jiang1, 2, LIU Shuang1, 2, LIN Zhi1*
1. Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resource Utilization of Ministry of Agriculture, Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310008, China; 2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract: Linalool is one of the most important tea aroma components with high content, and it has two optical isomers, namely 3R-(-)-Linalool and 3S-(+)-Linalool, both show entirely different aroma qualities. In this study, a method using chiral chromatographic column and based on headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was developed to analyze 3R-(-)-Linalool and 3S-(+)-Linalool in green tea and black tea samples. Results showed that 3R-(-)-Linalool and 3S-(+)-Linalool isomers were existed in green and black tea. The ratio of the relative content of 3S-(+)-Linalool to that of 3R-(-)-Linalool in green tea ranged from 2.07 to 14.05, with an average ratio of the relative content of 5.21, while, the ratio varied greatly in steamed green tea, roasted green tea and baking green tea. The ratio of the relative content of 3S-(+)-Linalool and 3R-(-)-Linalool were the highest in baking green tea (8.05), with the lowest in steamed green tea (2.72), and 4.78 in roasted green tea. The ratio of the relative content of 3S-(+)-Linalool to that of 3R-(-)-Linalool in black tea ranged from 0.65 to 0.82, with an average ratio of the relative content of 0.74. The ratio of the two optical isomers during the processing of green and black tea was analyzed as well, with the highest found following de-enzyme stage during the processing of green tea and following 2 h fermentation of black tea (5.78 and 1.59 respectively). Fresh leaves of 12 tea cultivars were also analyzed. Moreover, it varied greatly in different tea cultivars.
Keywords: green tea, black tea, aroma, linalool, optical isomers
 

茶叶及茶多糖中氟测定前处理方法的比较研究
朱晓静,房峰祥,张月华,倪德江,陈玉琼*
园艺植物生物学教育部重点实验室,华中农业大学园艺林学学院,湖北 武汉 430070
摘要:以不同品种茶树鲜叶及茶多糖为材料,比较了酸浸提、沸水浸提和碱熔灰化前处理对氟离子选择电极法测定氟含量的影响。结果表明,无论对茶叶还是茶多糖,碱熔灰化处理所测氟含量均极显著高于酸浸提和沸水浸提法(P<0.01)。茶叶水浸提法氟含量显著或极显著高于酸浸提法(P<0.05,P<0.01)。对碱熔灰化-氟离子电极法进行精密度及回收率实验,结果表明茶叶和多糖中氟的回收率分别达到91.07%~94.40%和83.04%~90.32%,而RSD分别为1.44%~2.54%和0.68%~1.03%,说明该方法稳定性好,精密度高,检测结果可靠,更能真实反映茶叶及茶多糖的氟含量,适宜于茶叶及茶提取物全氟的测定。
关键词:茶叶;茶多糖;氟含量;预处理方法;氟离子选择电极法
中图分类号:S571.1;O652          文献标识码:A           文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-145-06
 
Comparison on the Pretreatment Methods of Tea and Tea Polysaccharides for Determination of Fluorine Content
ZHU Xiaojing, FANG Fengxiang, ZHANG Yuehua, NI Dejiang, CHEN Yuqiong*
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education/College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Abstract: The influence of sample pretreatment methods including boiling water extraction (BWE),acidic solution extraction (ASE) and alkalizing and burning to ash(ABA) on fluorine content in tea and tea polysaccharides was investigated. The results showed that the fluorine contents of tea and tea polysaccharide pretreated with ABA were much higher than that of BWE and ASE method (P<0.01). The fluorine content of tea pretreated with BWE was significantly higher than ASE (P<0.05, P<0.01). The further test on precision and recovery of ABA and fluoride ion selective electrode method was investigated. Results showed that the recovery of fluorine in tea and tea polysaccharide were 91.07%-94.40% and 83.04%-90.32%, respectively, with RSD of 1.44%-2.54% for tea and 0.68%-1.03% for tea polysaccharide, which indicated the result of fluorine determination by this method could represent the real fluorine content in tea and tea polysaccharide with accuracy, reliability and stability. It was also suggested that the ABA and fluoride ion selective electrode method could be more suitable for determination of total fluorine in tea and tea extracts.
Keywords: tea, tea polysaccharide, fluorine content, pretreatment, fluoride ion selective electrode
 

茶树花多糖的修正系数蒽酮-硫酸检测新方法研究
张星海1, 2,许金伟2,周晓红2,虞培力2,屠幼英1*
1. 浙江大学茶学系,浙江 杭州 310058;2. 浙江经贸职业技术学院应用工程系,浙江 杭州 310018
摘要:建立一种茶树花多糖含量的修正系数蒽酮-硫酸检测方法。根据质量守恒定律,在普通蒽酮-硫酸检测多糖方法基础上,通过联用离子色谱检测技术,构建蒽酮-硫酸检测新方法的修正系数(f),实现茶树花多糖检测技术的快捷、准确和客观。研究表明,以半乳糖为标准对照品时修正系数f半乳糖=2.84,以葡萄糖为标准对照品时修正系数f葡萄糖=4.49。该方法稳定性好(RSD葡萄糖=1.7%,RSD半乳糖=1.0%)、精密度高(RSD葡萄糖=1.4%,RSD半乳糖=2.0%)、重复性强(RSD葡萄糖=3.2%,RSD半乳糖=2.5%)及加标回收率佳(回收率葡萄糖=91.3%~104.1%,回收率半乳糖=95.9%~104.4%)。用新方法测得3产地茶树花多糖含量分别为10.30%、10.07%及9.99%,高于常规蒽酮-硫酸法检测茶树花多糖值。茶树花多糖中单糖组分分析表明,以半乳糖为标准对照品检测茶树花多糖较好。
关键词:修正系数;蒽酮-硫酸法;茶多糖;离子色谱法;茶树花
中图分类号:TS272.5;Q946.3          文献标识码:A          文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-151-07
 
Study on Correction Coefficient of a New Anthrone Sulfuric Acid Method for Determination of Polysaccharides in Tea (Camellia sinensis) Flower
ZHANG Xinghai1, 2, XU Jinwei2, ZHOU Xiaohong2,YU Peili2, TU Youying1*
1. Department of Tea Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;
2. Department of Applied Engineering, Zhejiang Economic and Trade Polytechnic, Hangzhou 310018, China
AbstractA method for correction coefficient of anthrone sulfuric acid to detect the polysaccharides in tea flower was established. According to the law of conservation of mass and normal anthrone sulfuric acid method determination of polysaccharide, correction coefficient for a new detection method of anthrone sulfuric acid (f) was constructed through the combined use of ion chromatography technology, which laid the foundation for the tea flower polysaccharide detection technology with fast, accurate and objective charcteristics. The results showed that the correction coefficient were 2.84 and 4.49 when galactose and glucose were used as standard reference substance respectively. The method had good stability (RSDglucose=1.7%, RSDgalactose=1.0%), high precision (RSDglucose=1.4%, RSDgalactose=2.0%), strong repeatability (RSDglucose=3.2%, RSDgalactose=2.5%) and well recovery (recoveryglucose=91.3%-104.1%, recoverygalactose=95.9%-104.4%). Tea flower polysaccharide contents determined by the new method were 10.30%, 10.07% and 9.99% respectively in samples from Anhui, Sichuan and Zhejiang provinces, which were higher than the value determined by conventional anthrone sulfuric acid method. Monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides in tea flower showed that galactose was better to be used as standard reference.
Keywords: correction coefficient, anthrone-sulfuric acid method, polysaccharide, ion chromatography, tea flower

 
普洱茶水提物与吡格列酮联合应用降糖功效研究
胡金芳1,王根辈2,徐阎2,马晓慧2*,李长文2,申秀萍1
1. 天津药物研究院,天津 300193;2. 天士力研究院,天津 300410
摘要:选取链脲佐菌素(Streptozotocin,STZ)致糖尿病大鼠模型,研究普洱茶水提物与吡格列酮联合应用对糖尿病大鼠的降糖作用,以明确普洱茶水提物是否对降糖药物具有协同作用,在控制血糖前提下能否减少降糖药用量。根据血糖水平按照普洱茶水提物与吡格列酮联合用药和单独用药的方式将动物分成不同的组别,包括对照、模型、吡高、吡低、吡高+PTE低、吡高+PTE高、吡低+PTE低、吡低+PTE高各实验组,每天灌胃给药2次,连续给药4周。在试验期间观察动物状态,每周大鼠尾部静脉针刺取血,测定动物的空腹血糖值;于给药第4周测定大鼠葡萄糖耐量并检测血清中糖化血清蛋白(Glucosylated serum proteins,GSP)和胰岛素(Insulin,INS)含量并计算胰岛素敏感指数。结果发现普洱茶水提物与吡格列酮混合用药能显著抑制空腹血糖的升高,下调灌胃葡萄糖后30、60、120 min血糖的升高,显著抑制葡萄糖负荷血糖曲线下面积(Area  under concentration-time curve,AUC);给药各组能显著降低大鼠血清GSP含量。在服用吡格列酮的同时辅助饮用普洱茶水提物,可以减少服用吡格列酮的用药量而不减弱吡格列酮的降糖效果。
关键词:普洱茶水提物;降糖;联合用药;吡格列酮;糖耐量
中图分类号:TS272.5+4              文献标识码:A            文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-158-07
 
The Study of Hypoglycemic Effect of Pu′er Tea Extract Combined with Pioglitazone
HU Jinfang1, WANG Genbei2, XU Yan2, MA Xiaohui2*, LI Changwen2, SHEN Xiuping1
1. Tianjin Institute of Pharmaceutical Research, TianJin 300193, China; 2. Tasly Academy, TianJin 300410, China
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Pu′er tea extract combined with pioglitazone on diabetic model rat induced by STZ and clarify the synergistic effect of Pu′er tea extract with hypoglycemic drugs and the amount of hypoglycemic drugs could be reduced under the premise to control blood glucose. According to the blood glucose levels and the different ways of Pu′er tea extract combined with pioglitazone, all animals were divided into different groups including control, model, high P, low P, HP+LPTE, HP+HPTE, LP+LPTE, LP+HPTE, orally administered twice a day for consecutive 4 weeks. Animals’ status was observed during the test, and rat tail veins were weekly acupunctured to measure fasting blood glucose. The glucose tolerance, GSP and insulin levels in serum were determined in fourth week and insulin sensitivity index was calculated. The results showed that Pu′er tea extract combined with mixed medication pioglitazone could significantly suppress fasting blood glucose, lower blood glucose at 30 min, 60 min, 120 min after administration of glucose, and reduce the AUC as compared with other groups. Additionally, serum GSP levels were also reduced after treatment with Pu′er tea extract combined with pioglitazone. These results suggest that pioglitazone combined with pu′er tea extract could reduce the amount of pioglitazone without reducing pioglitazone’s hypoglycemic effect.
Keywords: Pu′er tea extract, hypoglycemic, drug combination, pioglitazone, tolerance


 普洱茶水提物与硝苯地平联用降压效果研究
李彦川,李欣欣,周王谊,李长文,马晓慧*
天士力研究院,天津 300410
摘要:观察普洱茶水提物对硝苯地平降压效果的影响。采用雄性SHR大鼠50只,按照平均尾动脉压随机分为模型组(M组)、硝苯地平3.1 mg·kg-1组(1/2临床剂量)(N.L组)、硝苯地平6.2 mg·kg-1组(临床剂量)(N.H组)、硝苯地平3.1 mg·kg-1+普洱茶水提物0.5 g·kg-1组(N.L+D.L组)、硝苯地平3.1 mg/kg+普洱茶水提物1.0 g·kg-1组(N.L+D.H组),每组10只,另设10只动物作为正常对照组(C组)。分组次日灌胃给予相应药物,每天2次,上午给予硝苯地平,下午给予普洱茶水提物,灌胃间隔3~4 h,每周对各组动物血压进行检测,持续4周。结果表明,大鼠给药4周后,硝苯地平6.2 mg·kg-1组大鼠尾动脉平均血压为(139±6) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa),与M组的(157±13) mmHg比较显著降低(P<0.05);N.L+D.H组大鼠尾动脉平均血压为(136±11) mmHg,与M组的(157±13) mmHg比较显著降低(P<0.05),与硝苯地平6.2 mg·kg-1组的(139±6) mmHg相比,降压效果相当(P>0.05)。研究表明,普洱茶水提物配合硝苯地平使用,可增强硝苯地平对SHR大鼠的降压功效,其降压效果与临床剂量硝苯地平单独使用相当,且对心脏具有一定程度的保护作用。
关键词:普洱茶水提物;硝苯地平;自发性高血压大鼠
中图分类号:TS272.5+4              文献标识码:A            文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-165-06
 
Research on Combined Anti-hypertensive Effect of
Pu'er Tea Extract and Nifedipine

LI Yanchuan, LI Xinxin, ZHOU Wangyi, LI Changwen, MA Xiaohui*
Tasly Institute, Tianjin 300410, China
Abstract: To explore combined anti-hypertensive effect of Pu'er tea extract and Nifedipine in SHR, 50 SHR rats were randomly divided into different model groups, N.L group, N.H group, N.L+D.L group and N.L+D.H group, 10 rats for each group. Wistar rats were selected as control group. Pu'er tea extract and Nifedipine were administered to SHR for 4 weeks. The blood pressure was measured once per week. Results showed that mean blood pressure was significantly reduced in spontaneous hypertension rats after treatment with 6.2 mg·kg-1 nifedipine, compared with model controls (P<0.05). The 3.1 mg·kg-1 nifedipine also has a tendency to decrease blood pressure. Combined antihypertensive effect of Pu'er tea extract and nifedipine was enhanced compared with nifedipine alone. The nifedipine showed anti-hypertensive effect on spontaneous hypertension rats in a dose-dependent manner. Pu'er tea extract can enhance the antihypertensive effect of nifedipine, and showed a certain degree of protective on heart.
Keywords: Pu'er tea extract, nifedipine, spontaneous hypertension rats
 
 
EGCG抑制Nicotine诱导肺腺癌H1299细胞
JAK2/STAT3 mRNA的表达研究

高静1,禹利君1*,李晓焕1,高鹏1,周清明2*
1. 湖南农业大学园艺园林学院茶学系 茶学教育部重点实验室,湖南 长沙 410128;2. 湖南农业大学农学院烟草系,湖南 长沙 410128
摘要:为探索EGCG对Nicotine诱导肺癌细胞增殖的抑制作用,本研究通过MTT实验筛选出EGCG、Nicotine对肺腺癌细胞H1299的最佳作用浓度,利用实时荧光定量PCR技术检测EGCG、Nicotine对H1299细胞中Bax、Bcl-2、Jak2和Stat3基因mRNA相对表达量的变化。实验结果表明,EGCG对H1299细胞的半抑制浓度IC50值约为32 μmol·L-1(24 h)、15 μmol·L-1(48 h);1 μmol·L-1的Nicotine对H1299细胞促增殖作用明显;以15 μmol·L-1的EGCG预处理H1299细胞24 h可显著下调1 μmol·L-1 Nicotine的促增殖作用(P<0.05)。1 μmol·L-1的Nicotine处理H1299细胞可明显降低JAK2/STAT3信号通路中Bax基因mRNA的表达,增加Bcl-2、Jak2、Stat3基因的mRNA表达;15 μmol·L-1 EGCG预处理H1299细胞可反向调控Nicotine诱导所致JAK2/STAT3信号通路中Jak2、Stat3和Bax、Bcl-2基因表达量的变化,结果具有显著性差异(P<0.05)。由此可知,EGCG对Nicotine诱导的肺腺癌H1299细胞增殖及JAK2/STAT3信号通路中促增殖基因mRNA的表达起抑制作用
关键词:EGCG;Nicotine;H1299细胞;JAK2/STAT3 mRNA表达
中图分类号:TS272;Q946.88          文献标识码:A          文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-171-08
 
Research on the Inhibitory Effect of EGCG on Nicotine in Inducing H1299 Cancer Cell JAK2/STAT3 mRNA Expression
GAO Jin1, YU Lijun1*, LI Xiaohuan1, GAO Peng1, ZHOU Qingming2*
1. Key Lab of Tea Science of Ministry of Education, Tea Science Department, College of Horticulture and Landscape, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; 2. Tobacco Science Department, College of Agriculture, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Abstract: In order to explore the inhibitory effect of EGCG on nicotine which induced lung cancer cells proliferation, this study selected the optimal concentrations of EGCG and nicotine on lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell H1299 by MTT experiment, and detected mRNA relative expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Jak2 and Stat3 genes in H1299 cells using qRT-PCR technique. Experiment results showed that the IC50 of EGCG on H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cells is about 32 μmol·L-1 (treated 48 h) and 15 μmol·L-1 (treated 24 h), nicotine obviously promotes the proliferation of H1299 lung adenocarcinoma cell at 1 μmol·L-1 concentration treatment. Pretreatment of H1299 cells with 15 μmol·L-1 EGCG (24 h) can significantly down-regulate the promotion of proliferation induced by 1 μmol·L-1 Nicotine (P<0.05). Using 1 μmol·L-1 nicotine to treat H1299 cells has showed that nicotine significantly reduce the mRNA expression level of Bax gene, increase the mRNA expression levels of Bcl-2, Jak2 and Stat3 genes in the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway. Pretreatment of H1299 cells with 15 μmol·L-1 EGCG (24 h) can be observed that EGCG
significantly retroregulated the mRNA expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, Jak2 and Stat3 genes in the JAK2/STAT3 signal pathway, and got the results with significant differences (P<0.05). In conclusion, EGCG plays important role in suppressing the survival rates of H1299 cells and mRNA expression level of JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway induced by nicotine.
Keywords: EGCG, nicotine, H1299 cell, JAK2/STAT3 mRNA expressions

PCA和PLS-DA用于晒青毛茶级别分类研究
刘彬球,陈孝权,吴晓刚,张偎,王子浩
大益集团勐海茶业有限责任公司,云南 勐海 666200
摘要:利用主成分分析法(Principal Component Analysis, PCA)和偏最小二乘法判别分析(Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis, PLS-DA)对晒青毛茶进行级别分类,并通过统计分析找出重要理化成分。结果表明:PCA和PLS-DA均可以直观地对晒青毛茶级别进行分类,其中能够稳定地分类出3级毛茶,而难以将6级和9级毛茶明显地分类。通过PCA载荷图(Loadings plot)和PLS-DA变量重要性因子(Variable important for the projection,VIP)分布图可得出氨基酸含量为级别分类的重要理化成分,其中赖氨酸(Lys)、脯氨酸(Pro)和苯丙氨酸(Phe)是对级别分类最重要的3种氨基酸组分。
关键词:晒青毛茶;级别分类;主成分分析;偏最小二乘法判别分析
中图分类号:TS272.5              文献标识码:A             文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-179-06
 
Study of Pu′er Raw Materials Grade Classification
by PCA and PLS-DA

LIU Binqiu, CHEN Xiaoquan, WU Xiaogang, ZHANG Wei, WANG Zihao
Menghai Tea Industry Co., Ltd, in TAETEA Group, Menghai, Yunnan 666200, China
Abstract: Two classification methods for Pu′er raw materials were explored using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the important physical and chemical compositions were identified through the statistical analysis. The results revealed that both PCA and PLS-DA could directly classify the grades of Pu′er raw materials, particularly for the grade 3, but not for that of grade 6 and 9. The PCA loadings plot and PLS-DA variable important for the projection plot indicated that the contents of amino acids were the important physical and chemical components for classification. Lysine (Lys), proline (Pro) and phenylalanine (Phe) were three most important physical and chemical compositions.
Keywords: Pu′er raw materials tea, grade classification, PCA, PLS-DA
 
 
茶棍蓟马(Dendrothrips minowai Priesner)
触角感器的扫描电镜观察

吕召云1,2,郅军锐1*,周玉锋2,孟泽洪2,张骏1,杨广明1
1. 贵州大学昆虫研究所/贵州山地农业病虫害重点实验室,贵州 贵阳 550025;2. 贵州省茶叶研究所,贵州 贵阳 550006
摘要:应用扫描电镜技术观测了茶棍蓟马若虫、蛹、雌雄成虫触角感器的类型、分布及超微结构。结果表明,各种虫态的茶棍蓟马触角上共存在9种感器:Böhm氏鬃毛(BB)、钟形感器(SCa)、锥形乳头状感器(BMS)、刺形感器(SCh)、锥形感器(SB)、腔锥形感器(SCo)、腔形感器(SCav)、耳形感器(SA)和特殊结构感器(US)。其中,刺形感器分3种亚型,锥形感器分4种亚型。若虫、蛹、雌、雄成虫的触角感器在触角上的种类和分布有较大的差异,雌虫上具8种感器,无锥形乳头状感器;雄虫上着生7种,缺少锥形乳头状感器和腔形感器;若虫上感器种类有8种,无耳形感器,独具锥形乳头状感器;蛹的感器类型及数量最少,只有2种,即刺形感器和锥形感器。
关键词:茶棍蓟马;触角;感器;扫描电镜;超微结构
中图分类号:S571.1;S43.711           文献标识码:A          文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-185-11
 
Scanning Electron Microscopic Observations
of Antennal Sensilla of Tea Stick Thrips
(Dendrothrips minowai Priesner)

LYU Zhaoyun1,2, ZHI Junrui1*, ZHOU Yufeng2, MENG Zehong2, ZHANG Jun1, YANG Guangming1
1. Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University/Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory for Agricultural Pest Management of Mountainous Region, Guiyang 550025, China; 2. Guizhou Tea Research Institute, Guiyang 550006, China
Abstract: The type, distribution and ultrastructure of sensilla on the antennae of nymph, pupa, adult female and male of Dendrothrips minowai Priesner thrips were observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results showed that nine kinds of sensors existed on D. Minowai thrips, which were Böhm bristles, sensilla campaniformia, basiconic mastoid sensillum, sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla cavity, sensilla auricillia and unusual sensillum. The sensilla chaetica and sensilla basiconica contained three and four subtypes, respectively. The type and distribution of sensilla significantly varied among different developmental stages: 1) Eight types of sensilla except basiconic mastoid sensillum were existed on the adult female. 2) Seven types of sensilla were existed on adult male other than basiconic mastoid sensillum and sensilla coeloconica. 3) The nymph possessed eight types of sensilla except sensilla auricillia, and with distinctive basiconic mastoid sensillum. 4) The types and number of sensilla on pupa were the least, only with sensilla chaetica and sensilla basiconica.
Keywords: Dendrothrips minowai Priesner, antenna, sensilla, scanning electron microscope, ultrastructures

 
配施生物基质肥料对茶园土壤酸度的改良效应
吴志丹1,江福英1,尤志明1*,王峰1,张磊1,翁伯琦2
1. 福建省农业科学院茶叶研究所,福建 福安 355015;2. 福建省农业科学院农业生态研究所,福建 福州 350013
摘要:通过连续4年(2009~2012)田间定位试验,研究配施不同比例生物基质肥料(养猪场发酵床垫料)对茶园土壤酸度的影响,探讨生物基质肥料降低茶园土壤酸度机制。试验设置生物基质肥料替代化肥比例的5个处理:0(CK)、25%、50%、75%和100%。结果表明:与CK相比,配施生物基质肥料处理的0~20 cm土层土壤有机碳含量提高3.00%~22.74%,pH值提高0.22~0.72个单位,土壤交换性酸降低16.01%~73.64%,盐基离子总量增加39.29%~248.21%,盐基饱和度提高43.90%~254.21%;20~40 cm土层土壤有机碳含量提高0.99%~11.48%,pH值提高0.14~0.59个单位,土壤交换性酸降低8.75%~32.15%,盐基离子总量增加46.03%~301.59%,盐基饱和度提高51.79%~252.95%。配施生物基质肥料处理能有效降低茶园土壤酸度,改良效果随着生物基质肥料施用比例的提高而增大。配施生物基质肥料能提高酸化土壤的盐基离子浓度和盐基饱和度,降低土壤交换性酸含量是生物基质肥料改良茶园土壤酸度的重要原因。
关键词:土壤酸度;生物基质肥料;土壤改良;茶园
中图分类号:S571.1;S147           文献标识码:A          文章编号:1000-369X(2015)02-196-07
 
Effects of Biological Manure Fertilizer Application on Ameliorating Acidity of Tea Garden Soil
WU Zhidan1, JIANG Fuying1, YOU Zhiming1*, WANG Feng1, ZHANG Lei1, WENG Boqi2
1. Tea Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fu’an 355015, China;
2. Agriculture Ecology Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350013, China
Abstract: A field experiment, with five treatments of application of biological manure fertilizer mixed with chemical fertilizers of different percentages: 0%(CK), 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, respectively, was successively conducted from 2009-2012 to investigate the effects of application of the biological manure fertilizer (swine litter in the microbial fermentation bed) on ameliorating acidity of tea garden soil. Results showed that, compared with CK, the soil organic carbon, soil pH, the total amount of base cations, and the base saturation percentage increased by 3.00%-22.74%, 0.22-0.72 unit, 39.29%-248.21% and 43.90%-254.21% in biological manure fertilizer treatments, respectively, while the soil exchangeable acid decreased by 16.01%-73.64% on the 0-20 cm layer of the soils. Meanwhile, the soil organic carbon, soil pH, the total amount of base cations, and the base saturation percentage increased by 0.99%-11.48%, 0.14-0.59 unit, 46.03%-301.59%, and 51.79%-252.95%, respectively in biological manure fertilizer treatments, while the soil exchangeable acid decreased by 8.75%-32.15% on the 20-40 cm layer of the soils. It is concluded that biological manure application could effectively decrease acidity of tea garden soil. Moreover the effects increased with the higher biological manure fertilizer application rate. The reason of biological manure fertilizer application in ameliorating acidity of tea garden soil was that its application could increase the total base cations and the base saturation percentage of acid soil as well as simultaneously decreased the soil exchangeable acid.
Keywords: soil acidity, biological manure fertilizer, soil amelioration, tea garden




 
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