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2017年09月21日 星期四
近期摘要
2015年第4期摘要
来源:
茶尺蠖类免疫球蛋白基因 EoHML 的克隆和表达分析
余玉庚 1,2, 袁志军 1, 殷坤山 1, 付建玉 1,2, 肖强*
1.中国农业科学院茶叶研究所,浙江 杭州 310008; 2. 中国农业科学院研究生院,北京 100081
摘要:类免疫球蛋白(Hemolin)是一种鳞翅目昆虫特有的免疫相关蛋白,也是唯一的无脊椎动物免疫球蛋白家族成员。本实验应用 RACE 技术获得了茶尺蠖(Ectropis obliqua Prout)类免疫球蛋白基因的全长cDNA 序列,命名为EoHML(GenBank 登录号: KM885983),并分析了相关生物信息学特性,检测了病毒感染后基因的表达水平。结果表明,EoHML 基因序列全长1772 bp,包含1239 bp的开放阅读框,编码412个氨基酸,预测蛋白分子量大小为45.8 kD,等电点(pI)为8.297,属于典型的分泌型蛋白,且具有昆虫Hemolin基因保守的4个Ig功能区和2个N-glycosylation位点。系统进化分析表明,该蛋白与目前已知的类免疫球蛋白氨基酸序列的亲缘关系都较远,与烟草天蛾(Manduca sexta)类免疫球蛋白氨基酸序列相似度最高,为53%。荧光定量检测结果表明,茶尺蠖核型多角体病毒(EoNPV)感染茶尺蠖幼虫后该基因表达量显著升高,最高表达量是正常对照的36.5倍,表明茶尺蠖EoHML 基因可能参与了茶尺蠖对EoNPV 的免疫代谢反应。
关键词: 茶尺蠖;类免疫球蛋白;基因克隆;表达分析
中图分类号: S571.1; S435.711 文献标识码: A 文章编号: 1000-369X( 2015)04-307-09
 
Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Hemolin Gene in Tea Geometrid (Ectropis obliqua)
YU Yugeng1,2, YUAN Zhijun1, YIN Kunshan1, FU Jianyu1,2, XIAO Qiang1*
1Tea Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310008, China; 2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract: Hemolin, a unique immune protein, belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily of Lepidoptera insects. A full length cDNA sequence of hemolin gene was cloned by RACE-PCR from tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua Prout), which was named as EoHML (GenBank Accession No. KM885983). The results of bioinformatics characterization showed that the full length cDNA of EoHML was 1 772 bp, which contained an intact CDS of 1 239 bp and encoded 412 amino acid residues with a putative molecular mass of 45.8 kD and an isoionic point of 8.297. The deduced amino acid sequence demonstrates it belongs to a typical secretory protein that contains 4 Ig functional conservative areas and 2 N-glycosylation sites. Phylogenetic analysis showed that EoHML share the far genetic distance with published hemolin gene and the highest similarity with that of Manduca sexta was only 53%. The results of quantitative real-time PCR analysis further revealed a significant up-regulated expression about 36.5 times in the larvae infected E.obliqua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (EoNPV) than the controls. The study indicated that the EoHML gene may participate in the immune response to EoNPV in tea geometrid.
Keywords: tea geometrid (Ectropis obliqua), hemolin, gene cloning, expression analysis


管理模式对 4 类茶园节肢动物群落时空格局和多样性影响
潘铖 1, 韩善捷 1, 2, 韩宝瑜 1*
1中国计量学院浙江省生物计量及检验检疫技术重点实验室, 浙江 杭州 310018; 2. 浙江农林大学, 浙江 临安 311300
摘要: 选择树龄相同、品种为安吉白茶而栽培管理模式不同的有机茶园、三行密植茶园和丰产茶园,以及种植安吉白茶和龙井 43 等 40 多个品种的茶树品种园, 通过在 1 周年内每 2 月 1 次的调查,发现:①从品种园、有机茶园、三行密植茶园至丰产茶园,天敌种数和个体数递减;三行密植茶园总个体数最大。②在垂直分层上:天敌种数和个体数在丰产茶园、三行密植茶园和品种园中皆以中层最多,在有机茶园中则以上层最多;害虫种数在丰产茶园、三行密植茶园和品种园中以中层最多,在有机茶园中以上层最多;害虫个体数在丰产茶园和三行密植茶园以下层最多,在品种园和有机茶园以中层最多;③在水平分布上,除了品种园,其他 3类茶园东、西向天敌种数之和、个体数之和分别大于南、北向天敌种数之和、个体数之和;④在茶丛内、外层,4类茶园皆以内层害虫种数和个体数略多;外层天敌种数和个体数略多;⑤12月至翌年 2月的越冬期间,物种数相对较少;4月、6月和10月物种数相对较多;⑥从有机茶园、品种园、丰产茶园至三行密植茶园,多样性指数递减。分析认为:尽管树龄、品种等相同,但是一个时期以来的不同管理模式可导致 4 类茶园节肢动物群落时空格局和多样性的显著差异,在一定程度上调控着昆虫群落结构和多样性。
关键词: 茶园; 田间管理模式; 节肢动物群落; 时空格局; 生物多样性
中图分类号:S571.1;S435.711    文献标识码:A    文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-316-07
 
Effect of Various Field Management Models on Temporal and Spatial Patterns and Diversity of Arthropod Community in Four Types of Tea Plantations
PAN Cheng1, HAN Shanjie1, 2, HAN Baoyu1 *
1.Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Biometrology and Inspection & Quarantine, College of Life Sciences of China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, China; 2. Zhejiang Agricultural and Forestry University, Lin′an 311300, China
Abstract: The arthropod communities were investigated by sampling at an interval of two months for one year in four types of tea plantations: organic tea plantation (OTP), tri-row dense tea tree plantation (TRDTTP), and high yield tea plantation (HYTP) Every types of tea garden planted the Anjibaicha tea cultivar with the same tea plant age, as well as the tea cultivar garden (TCG) growing with Anjibaicha, Longjin 43 and other over forty cultivars . The results showed that: ① Species richness and abundance of natural enemies decreased progressively from TCG, OTP, TRDTTP to HYTP, whilst the total abundance in TRDTTP was the highest among the four types of tea plantations. ② For the vertical stratification of arthropod communities, higher species richness and abundance of the natural enemies in HYTP, TRDTTP and TCG existed at the middle layer of tea plant than in the other layers, whereas the highest species richness and abundance occurred at the upper layer in OTP, the highest species richness of various pests occurred at the middle layer of tea plant in HYTP, TRDTTP and TCG, and at the upper layer in OTP; the highest abundance (overall individual numbers) of pests existed at the lower layer in HYTP and TRDTTP, and at the middle layer in TCG and OTP. ③ Horizontally, the sum of species richness and the sum of abundance of the natural enemies toward the eastward and the westward were more than those toward the southward and the northward in the all plantations except TCG. ④ The species richness and the abundance of pests existed in the inner layers of tea canopies were slightly higher than those in the outer layers for all four tea plantations, whilst the species richness and the abundance of the natural enemies occurred in outer layers were slightly more than those in the inner layers. ⑤ A relatively low species richness was recorded from December to February (overwinter period), while higher species richnesses were detected in April, June and October. ⑥ The diversity indices of arthropod communities decreased progressively from OTP, TCG, HYTP to TRDTTP. It is suggested that the different field management models (different types of tea plantations) might lead to the significant differences in the temporal and spatial patterns (structures) and the diversity of the arthropod communities in tea plantations.
Keywords: tea plantations, field management models, arthropod community, temporal and spatial patterns, biodiversity

 
人工饲料条件下茶尺蠖的饲养与繁殖
刘琴 1,徐健 1*,李传明 1,韩光杰 1,孙俊 2,祁建杭 1,王春军 3,刘更生 3
1. 江苏里下河地区农业科学研究所,江苏 扬州 225007; 2. 扬州绿源生物化工有限公司, 江苏 扬州 225008;3. 仪征市林业生产技术指导站,江苏 仪征 211400
摘要:利用生命表法研究一种人工饲料条件下茶尺蠖的生长发育和繁殖。结果表明:人工饲料饲养条件下茶尺蠖能够正常生长发育,幼虫存活率、蛹羽化率和卵孵化率分别为90.50%、86.29%和91.03%,与茶树嫩梢饲养比较差异不显著。人工饲料饲养幼虫化蛹率为85.52%,低于茶树嫩梢饲养87.50%的化蛹率。取食人工饲料的茶尺蠖幼虫历期和世代历期分别为 20 d 和 39.62 d,较茶树嫩梢饲养历期分别增加1.44 d 和 2.41 d,但两者无显著差异。人工饲料饲养茶尺蠖雌成虫寿命显著高于对照,单雌产卵286.9粒,较茶树嫩梢饲养增加14.82%。幼虫种群存活率曲线呈死亡率-年龄增函数,死亡主要发生在后期(化蛹)个体中,与茶树嫩梢饲养差异不显著;实验种群生命表参数种群内禀增长力和周限增长率分别为0.113和1.119,平均世代周期和种群加倍时间较茶树嫩梢饲养增加了2.43 d和 0.265 d,种群趋势指数87.21,表明采用人工饲料饲养的茶尺蠖种群数量呈显著上升趋势。
关键词: 茶尺蠖; 人工饲料; 实验种群;生长发育;繁殖
中图分类号:S571.1;S435.711     文献标识码:A      文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-323-06
 
Growth and Reproduction of Ectropis oblique Fed on Artificial Diet
LIU Qin1, XU Jian1*, LI Chuanming1, HAN Guangjie1, SUN Jun2, QI Jianhang1, WANG Chunjun3, LIU Gengsheng3
1.Jiangsu Lixiahe Institute of Agriculture Science, Yangzhou 225007, China; 2. Yangzhou Luyuan Bio-chemical Co., Ltd., Yangzhou 225008, China; 3. Yizheng Station of Forest Technique, Yizheng 211400, China
Abstract:The growth and reproduction of tea geometrid, Ectropis obliqua Prout, fed on an artificial diet were studied. The results showed that the larvae grew and developed normally fed on the artificial diet. Larvae survival rate, eclosion rate and hatchability were 90.50%, 86.29% and 91.03% respectively. There were no significant difference comparing with that reared with tea tender shoots. The pupation rate of larvae those fed with the artificial diets was 85.52%, lower than those fed with tea tender shoots. Duration of larvae and generation fed with artificial diet were 20 d and 39.62 d, the duration of larvae was postponed 1.44 d and 2.41 d compared with the control. Numbers of eggs oviposited by female adults fed with artificial diets were 286.9 per female, 14.82 percent higher than those fed on tea teder shoots. Survival rate curve of larvae showed an increasing function of mortality-age, no significant difference from the curve of larvae fed on tea tender shoots. The intrinsic rate of increase (Rm) and finite rate by increase (λ) in population were 0.113 and 1.119. The larvae mean generation time (T) and double time (DT) in population fed with artificial diets prolonged 2.43 d and 0.265 d in comparison with the population fed with tea shoots. Population trend index (I) was 87.209, indicated that the population of E. obliqua fed on artificial diet showed the ascending trend.
Keywords: Ectropis obliqua, artifical diet, experimental population, growth, reproduction
 
 
基于 EST-SSR 的祁门种群体遗传多样性和亲缘关系分析
李赛君, 雷雨, 段继华, 罗意, 黄飞毅, 董丽娟*
湖南省茶叶研究所, 国家茶树改良中心湖南分中心, 湖南 长沙 410125
摘要: 利用 24对 EST-SSR引物对祁门种群体 66 个单株和安徽 1号进行遗传多样性和亲缘关系分析。结果表明:祁门种群体具有相对较高的遗传多样性,24对引物共检测到等位位点 69个,平均 2.88个;引物多态性含量 PIC 为 0.18~0.85,平均值为 0.47;杂合度观测值(Ho)在 0.09~0.96 之间,平均值为0.41;杂合度期望值(He)在0.23~0.76之间,平均值为0.50;群体内的 Shannon 指数 I 为 0.39~1.50,平均 0.89。根据相似系数矩阵按 UPGMA 法进行聚类,在相似系数平均值 0.50 处可将参试的 67 份材料划分为六大类,其中第Ⅰ类含有44 个祁门种群体单株及安徽 1 号,占总数的 67.16%,是祁门种的核心类群。
关键词: 祁门种群体; EST-SSR;遗传多样性;亲缘关系
中图分类号:S571.1;S330    文献标识码:A   文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-329-07
 
Analysis of Genetic Diversity and Relationship of Qimen Population of Tea Plants Based on EST-SSR Markers
LI Saijun, LEI Yu, DUAN Jihua, LUO Yi, HUANG Feiyi, DONG Lijuan*
Hunan Tea Research Institute, Hunan Branch of National Center for Tea Improvement, Changsha 410125, China
Abstract: The 24 pairs of EST-SSR primers were used to analyze the genetic polymorphism and genetic relationship of 66 Qimen plants and ‘Anhui 1’. It was showed that the level of genetic diversity within Qimen population was high, with 69 alleles amplified by the 24 EST-SSR primers averaged 2.88. The polymorphism information content (PIC) was ranged from 0.18 to 0.85, with a mean 0.47. The observed heterozygosity (Ho) varied from 0.09 to 0.96, and the expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.23 to 0.76, with average of 0.41 and 0.50, respectively. The Shannon index of the Qimen plant population ranged from 0.39 to 1.50, with an average of 0.89. The 66 Qimen plant individuals and cultivar ‘Anhui 1’ were classified into 6 groups based on the UPGMA method with the similarity coefficient at 0.50, and the group I contained 44 Qimen individuals and ‘Anhui 1’, accounted for the 67.16% of the total, which is considered to be core group of the Qimen population.
Keywords: Qimen population, EST-SSR, genetic polymorphism, genetic relationship
 
 茶树根系 Actin 基因克隆及表达分析
李远华 1,陆建良 2,范方媛 2,石玉涛 1
1. 武夷学院茶与食品学院/福建省武夷茶资源创新利用重点实验室/福建省高校茶叶工程研究中心/中国乌龙茶产业协同创新中心(培育),福建 武夷山 354300; 2. 浙江大学茶叶研究所,浙江 杭州 310058
摘要:采用 SSH 技术分析了VA菌根处理后福鼎大白茶根系基因差异表达情况,获得了差异序列,序列比对显示,在下调表达序列中可能包含了10种未知功能的基因;在上调表达序列中可能包含了5 种可能的基因。采用 RACE技术获得Actin基因全长序列,Actin基因长1606bp (GenBank, 登录号 KJ946252),具有1131bp 开放阅读框(1st~1 131st),编码 377个氨基酸。分子生物信息学分析表明,Actin 蛋白分子量约 30.69 kD,等电点为 5.27,定位于细胞核等亚细胞区位。研究还显示,Actin 在不同品种中表达无显著差异,对非生物性胁迫响应也较弱。
关键词: 茶树; Actin;基因克隆;表达
中图分类号:S571.1;Q52         文献标识码:A        文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-336-11
 
Gene Cloning and Expression Analysis of Actin in Tea Plant Root
LI Yuanhua1, LU Jianliang2, FAN Fangyuan2, SHI Yutao1
1. College of Tea and Food Science, Wuyi University, Wuyishan 354300, China; 2. Zhejiang University Tea Research Institute, Hangzhou 310058, China
Abstract: By using SSH, we analyzed differences in gene expression of root from Fuding white tea infected by VA mycorrhiza and obtained diversity sequences. The sequence alighment showed that the down-regulated expression sequence possibly contained 10 unknown genes and the up-regulated expression sequence possible contained 5 known genes. The Actin genic full-length sequence was obtained by using RACE. The length of Actin gene was 1606 bp (GenBank Accession No. KJ946252), with 1 131 bp ORF (1st-1 131st), the sequence encoded 377 amino acid. Bioinformatics indicated that the Actin protein’s molecular weight was about 30.69 kD, IEP was 5.27, located in subcellular fraction area like cell nucleus. The study also showed Actin expressed no obvious difference in different cultivars and it responded weak to non-biological stress.
Keywordstea plant, actin, gene clone, expression
 

千家寨不同海拔野生茶树的 EST-SSR 遗传多样性研究
黄晓霞, 唐探, 姜永雷,冯程程,程小毛*
西南林业大学园林学院,云南 昆明 650224
摘要: 利用 5 对 EST-SSR 引物对千家寨内7个海拔梯度的野生茶树居群进行遗传多样性和遗传结构的研究。在物种水平上,Shannon信息指数(I)和Nei 基因多样性(He)分别为 1.33 和 0.66,表现出很高的遗传多样性;千家寨不同海拔梯度上野生茶树居群的遗传多样性有差异,且随着海拔梯度的递增,居群的遗传多样性呈现出低—高—低的分布,并在海拔 2 100 m 处达到最大值;野生茶树居群间的基因流(Nm)为1.84,群体分化系数(Fst)为 0.12,且基于 AMOVA 软件分析结果显示有 16.32%的变异发生在居群间,表明野生茶树群体间属于中度分化,且大部分变异存在于居群内。野生茶树本身的遗传特性和不同海拔居群所处生境的异质性是其现有遗传格局的主要原因。
关键词: 野生茶树;海拔梯度;遗传多样性;遗传分化; EST-SSR
中图分类号:S571.1;S339          文献标识码:A         文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-347-07
 
Genetic Diversity of Wild Tea Plant in Different Altitude in Qianjiazhai
HUANG Xiaoxia, TANG Tan, JIANG Yonglei, FENG Chengcheng, CHENG Xiaomao*
Faculty of Landscape Architecture, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China
Abstract: 5 pairs of EST-SSR markers derived by the authors were used to study genetic diversity and genetic structure of 7 wild tea populations at different altitudes in Qianjiazhai. At the species level, Shannon information index (I) and Nei’s gene diversity (He) were 1.33 and 0.66, respectively, indicating this species has high genetic diversity at species level. Along altitudinal gradients, the genetic diversity among population of wild tea was different and showed low-high-low distribution. The genetic diversity of population at altitude 2 100 m was much higher than others populations. AMOVA analysis showed that only 16.32% of the total genetic variation occurred among populations, whereas 83.68% of the variance was within populations, which was in line with the coefficient of genetic differentiation (Fst = 0.12). And the gene flow Nm was 1.84, indicating the genetic diversity between wild ancient population in was characterized by the moderate level. The genetic characteristics of wild tea and the habitat heterogeneity in different elevation are the main reason of existing genetic pattern.
Keywords: wild tea, altitude, genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, EST-SSR
 
控释氮肥对茶叶产量、品质和氮素利用效率及经济效益的影响
马立锋 1,2, 苏孔武 3, 黎金兰 3, 石元值 1,伊晓云 1,方丽 1, 阮建云 1*
1中国农业科学院茶叶研究所,农业部茶树生物学与资源利用重点实验室, 浙江 杭州 310008; 2. 中国农业科学院研究生院,北京 100081; 3. 广西桂林茶叶科学研究所, 广西 桂林 541004
摘要: 通过田间试验,研究了控释氮肥对茶园土壤无机氮含量、茶叶产量、品质成分、氮素利用效率和茶叶中氮磷等主要矿质元素吸收的影响,比较了不同施肥方式对经济效益的影响。结果表明,不同氮肥处理间土壤无机氮含量无显著差异,但控释肥处理土壤中无机氮变化幅度较小,而且比较稳定。与普通氮肥相比,控释氮肥单施或与普通氮肥配施,茶叶产量分别提高7.5%15.2%。施控释氮肥对茶叶游离氨基酸总量、茶多酚含量、酚氨比值不会产生明显的影响。控释氮肥能促进茶树对氮、磷等主要矿质元素的吸收,提高茶树新梢氮素利用率,其中新梢氮素利用效率(NUE),控释氮肥和普通氮肥配施比普通氮肥高 5.38 个百分点,比单施控释氮肥高2.39个百分点,新梢氮素偏生产率(PNE),控释氮肥和普通氮肥配施比普通氮肥处理高 1.16 kg·kg-1,比单施控释氮肥高 0.57 kg·kg-1。 与普通氮肥相比, 单施控释氮肥每年每公顷增加纯收入 0.93 万元,控释氮肥和普通氮肥配施增加纯收入2.01 万元。本研究结果表明,控释氮肥与普通氮肥配施增产、增效明显。
关键词: 茶树;控释氮肥;产量;品质成分;氮素利用率; 矿质元素; 经济效益
中图分类号:S571.1;S143     文献标识码:A    文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-354-09
 
Effects of Controlled-release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Tea Yield, Quality, Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Economic Benefit
MA Lifeng1,2, SU Kongwu3, LI Jinlan3, SHI Yuanzhi1, YI Xiaoyun1, FANG Li1, RUAN Jianyun1*
1Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou 310008, China; 2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China; 3. Guilin Tea Research Institute, Guilin 541004, China
Abstract: The study was carried out to investigate the effects of different N fertilization input on soil inorganic N, tea yield, quality components, N use efficiency, uptake of N, P, and other mineral nutrients and financial economic benefit. Results indicated that soil inorganic N concentration varied less and relatively more stable in controlled-release N fertilizer (CRF) or CRF blending with conventional N fertilizer (CF) than CF, but there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) among three N treatments. In comparison with CF, tea yields in CRF and CRF blending with CF were increased by 7.5% and 15.2%, respectively. The tea quality components, including free amino acid, tea polyphenol and the TP/AA ratio showed no statistical difference (P>0.05) among three N treatments. CRF or CRF blending with CF promoted tea plants to uptake N, P and other mineral nutrients, and improved N use efficiency in young shoots. Comparing CF and CRF, the NUE increment rates in CRF blending with CF were 5.38% and 2.39%, respectively. The PNE in CRF blending with CF was 1.16 kg·kg-1 higher than CF, and 0.57 kg·kg-1 higher than CRF. Compared to CF, the total net income increment in CRF and CRF blending with CF were 9.3 thousand yuan RMB and 20.1 thousand yuan RMB per hectare, respectively. It was concluded that CRF blending with CF has significant promoting effect on tea yields and economic benefit.
Keywords: tea plant [Camell ia sinensis (L.)], controlled-release nitrogen fertilizer, tea yield, tea quality components, nitrogen use efficiency, mineral nutrients, economic benefit
 
 
基于模糊算法的茶叶理条机温度控制设计
王小勇 1,李兵 1*,曾晨 1, 李尚庆 2, 徐成刚 1
1安徽农业大学工学院,安徽 合肥 230036; 2. 安徽农业大学茶与食品科技学院,安徽 合肥 230036
摘要: 为了防止茶叶在理条过程中出现色泽变黄、变暗或产生焦味的现象,需要有效地控制理条过程中的温度,提高茶叶的加工质量。将模糊算法与理条过程的温度控制结合,运用 Matlab 对设计进行仿真及进行理条实验, 表明主副加热部件模糊温度控制精度高,超调量小, 碎茶率为 6%(传统方式碎茶率为 11.8%,单一加热部件模糊控制碎茶率为 8.3%),理条温度为 90℃, 评审分数为 932.5 分, 优于传统理条方式与单一加热部件模糊控制理条方式, 该研究为提高茶叶理条质量提供了参考。
关键词: 模糊算法;茶叶理条; Matlab
中图分类号:TS272.5;S233.75   文献标识码:A   文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-363-07
 
The Temperature Design of Tea Carding Machine Based on Fuzzy Controler
WANG Xiaoyong1, LI Bing1*, ZENG Chen1, LI Shangqing2, XU Chenggang1
1Engineering College, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China; 2. Tea and Food Science and Technology College, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036, China
Abstract: In order to prevent the color yellow, darker or burnt phenomenon generated in the tea carding, it is needed for effective control of the temperature during the tea carding, to improve the processing quality of tea. The combination of fuzzy algorithm and temperature control of the carding process, the Matlab was aplied in design and simulate, the carding experiment. Results showed that fuzzy temperature control on the main and auxiliary heating component with high precision, and small overshoot, the broken rate of tea is 6% (the traditional way of broken rate is 11.8%, fuzzy temperature control on single heating element broken rate of tea was 8.3%), temperature of 90℃, score is 932.5 points, is better than the traditional control method and the single heating parts, this study provides the reference for improving tea carding quality.
Keywords: fuzzy algorithm, tea carding, Matlab
 
工夫红茶可视化富氧发酵机设计及试验研究
董春旺 1,2,叶阳 1*,江用文 1*, 朱宏凯 1,何华锋 1,桂安辉 1,高明珠 1,黄藩 1
1. 中国农业科学院茶叶研究所/浙江省茶叶加工工程重点实验室/国家茶产业工程技术研究中心/农业部茶树生物学与资源利用重点实验室, 浙江 杭州 310008; 2. 江苏大学食品科学与食品工程学院, 江苏 镇江 212013
摘要: 针对目前红茶发酵设备与发酵工艺结合不紧密而造成的发酵温湿度不稳定、 难翻拌、 缺氧、 品质不稳定等问题,设计了一种工夫红茶可视化富氧发酵机。文章描述了机器的总体设计方案,并对发酵筒、翻拌装置和隧道加热等装置进行了设计,确定了其关键参数值。该研究进行了发酵性能试验,最佳工艺参数为发酵温度 30℃、湿度大于 90%、发酵时间 3.5 h。与传统发酵相比,香气、滋味等有明显提高,感官品质总分高于传统发酵 2.1分。本研制机型结构简单、操作方便,能很好地满足优质红茶的发酵工艺技术要求,具有很好的推广应用前景。
关键词: 工夫红茶; 发酵机; 设计; 试验
中图分类号:TS272.5+2;S23  文献标识码:A  文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-370-07
 
Design and Experimental Investigation of Congou Black Tea Visual Aerobic Fermentation Machine
DONG Chunwang1,2, YE Yang1*, JIANG Yongwen1*, ZHU Hongkai1, HE Huafeng1, GUI Anhui1,2, GAO Mingzhu1, HUANG Fan1
1.Tea Research Institute of The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Key Laboratory of Tea Processing Engineer of Zhejiang Province, National Engineering Technology Research Center for Tea Industry, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization Ministry of Agriculture, Hangzhou 310008, China; 2. School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
Abstract: In order to solve the existing problems caused by loose combination of black tea fermentation equipment and fermentation process, including instable fermentation temperature and humidity, difficult mixing, oxygen deficit and non-uniform quality, a congou black tea visual aerobic fermentation machine was designed. Our study described the overall design scheme of the machine and its key parts such as the fermentation tube, mixing and heat tunnel device, and then determines the key parameters. By conducting a fermentation performance test, it was found that the fermentation processing achieved the optimal effect with more than 90% of humidity at 30℃ fermentation temperature for 3.5 h. Compared with traditional fermentation, the aroma, taste and more have been significantly improved and sensory quality score was 2.1 points higher. The machine is simple in structure and convenient to operate. It can well meet the fermentation requirements of high-quality black tea and possessed a good application
Keywords: congou black tea, fermentation machine, design, experiment


烘青绿茶苦涩味及其滋味贡献物质分析
张英娜 1, 2, 陈根生 1, 刘阳 1, 2, 许勇泉 1*,汪芳 1,陈建新 1, 尹军峰 1
1中国农业科学院茶叶研究所,国家茶产业工程技术研究中心,农业部茶树生物学与资源利用重点实验室,浙江省茶叶加工工程重点实验室,浙江 杭州 310008; 2. 中国农业科学院研究生院,北京 100081
摘要:对烘青绿茶苦涩味量化分析及其主要滋味贡献物质进行探讨。以不同嫩度烘青绿茶为原料,采用量化感官分析方法及化学分析手段分析了茶汤滋味分属性(包括苦味、涩味、鲜味和醇味等)和滋味化学成分含量,并建立了两者之间的相关性。研究结果表明,随着烘青绿茶嫩度的下降,其茶汤苦味、涩味和鲜爽味强度呈下降趋势,整体滋味品质也显著下降。通过分析茶叶滋味化学成分含量及其滋味 Dot 值,发现烘青绿茶苦味的主要贡献物质是 EGCG 和咖啡碱; 而涩味的主要贡献物是儿茶素和黄酮苷,其中儿茶素以 EGCG 为主,包括 EGC 和 ECG,黄酮苷以槲皮素-3-O-芸香糖苷(Que-rut)和槲皮素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Que-gala)为主,包括杨梅素-3-O-半乳糖苷(Myr-gala)、 槲皮素-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Que-glu)、 牡荆素-2"-O-鼠李糖苷(Vit-rha)、山柰酚-3-O-半乳糖苷(Kae-gala)、 山柰酚-3-O-芸香糖苷(Kae-rut)、山柰酚-3-O-葡萄糖苷(Kae-glu)等。Dot 值分析表明氨基酸对烘青绿茶鲜爽味没有显著贡献。 本研究初步明确了烘青绿茶苦涩味的主要贡献物质,为茶叶品质提升和滋味化学研究提供理论基础。
关键词: 烘青绿茶; 苦味; 涩味; 滋味贡献物质
中图分类号:TS272.5+1    文献标识码: A    文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-377-07
 
Analysis of the Bitter and Astringent Taste of Baked Green Tea and Their Chemical Contributors
ZHANG Yingna1, 2, CHEN Gensheng1, LIU Yang1, 2, XU Yongquan1*, WANG Fang1, CHEN Jianxin1, YIN Junfeng1
1Tea Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Engineering Research Center for Tea Processing, Key Laboratory of Tea Biology and Resources Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, Key Laboratory of Tea Processing Engineering of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou 310008, China; 2. Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract: The paper discussed the quantitative analysis of the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and the main chemical component contributors. Baked green teas made of fresh tea leaves with different tenderness were used as the raw material to analyze the taste attributes (including bitterness, astringency, umami, and mellowness) and contents of quality components by quantitative sensory evaluation and chemical analysis, and synchronously establish the correlation between them. The results showed that, with the decrease of tea leaves tenderness, the bitter, astringent and umami taste of the tea infusions decreased as well as the total taste quality. Through analyzing the quality components and their taste contributions, it was found that the main contributors for the bitterness of the baked green tea were EGCG and caffeine, and for the astringency were catechins and flavonoid glycosides. EGCG was the main catechin component for astringent taste, and EGC and ECG also had significant contribution. Que-rut and Que-gala were the main flavonoid glycosides, other glycosides including Myr-gala, Que-glu, Vit-rha, Kae-gala, Kae-rut, Kae-glu also had significant contribution for astringent taste. The analysis of the Dot values showed that free amino acids had no significant contribution to the umami tatste. This research preliminarily illuminated the main chemical contributors for the bitter and astringent taste of the baked green tea and provided theory basis for the tea-quality improvement and taste-chemistry study.
Keywords: baked green tea, bitterness, astringency, taste-contribution components
 
 
红茶对高脂饮食小鼠血脂的调节作用研究
陈金华 1,2,谭斌 1,2,龚雨顺 1,2,黄建安 1*,刘仲华 1,2*
1湖南农业大学 茶学教育部重点实验室,湖南 长沙 410128; 2. 国家植物功能成分利用工程技术研究中心,湖南 长沙 410128
摘要: 采用脂代谢紊乱模型法—预防性给予不同地区不同剂量的红茶(剂量为成人每日饮用量的 5 倍、 10 倍和 20 倍 3 种),观察小鼠体重、血脂、相关酶及肝脏形态的变化。结果表明:与高脂模型对照组相比,红茶剂量组能极显著(P<0.01) 降低血清总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL-C)、肝脏丙二醛(MDA)、肝脏指数;极显著(P<0.01) 升高血清载脂蛋白 A1(apoA1)、脂蛋白脂酶(LPL)、肝脂酶(HL)、总脂酶、肝脏超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)及谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GPX),血清高密度脂蛋白(HDL-C)有所上升,小鼠体重也得到了一定的抑制,肝脏病变程度得到了相应的减轻,说明红茶具有一定的调节血脂及减小肝脏因高脂饮食所带来的损伤。
关键词: 红茶;血脂; 肝损伤
中图分类号:TS272.5+2;R972+.6   文献标识码:A   文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-384-13
 
Effect of Black Tea on Regulating Serum Lipid in Mice Fed with a High-fat Diet
CHEN Jinhua1,2, TAN Bin1,2, GONG Yushun1,2, HUANG Jian′an1*, LIU Zhonghua1,2*
1Key Lab of Tea Science of Ministry of Education, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China; 2. National Research Center of Engineering & Technology for Utilization of Functional Ingredients from Botanicals, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128, China
Abstract: The lipid metabolic disturbance model method was used to investigate the regulatory effects of Black Tea (BT) at different dosages (5 times, 10 times and 20 times of adult daily consumption) on serum lipid levels in hyperlipoidemia mice. In present study, blood lipid levels, body weight, and related enzymes of liver and serum were measured, and the histopathological changes in tissues of liver were also examined. It was found that the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver index were significantly lower (P<0.01) in BT-treated mice compared with the high hyperlipoidemia model mice, while serum levels of apoA1, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), hepatictriglyceridelipase (HL) and total lipase, and liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) actives and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) actives were significantly higher after treatment with BT (P<0.01). Additionally, serum levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was slightly increased. Moreoverr, body weight was reduced, and the liver lesions were attenuated to some degree in BT-treated mice. The results suggested that BT showed a positive effect on regulating the serum lipid and reducing the liver injury induced by high fat diet.
Keywords: black tea, serum lipid, liver injury
 
 中国城乡居民茶叶消费对比研究
管曦 1,2, 杨江帆 2
1福建农林大学经济学院,福建 福州 350002; 2. 福建农林大学茶叶科技与经济研究所,福建 福州 350002
摘要: 基于 CHNS 2011 年的数据,本文利用 Double hurdle 模型,从参与消费和消费多少两个角度对比分析了中国城乡居民的茶叶消费。结果表明, 中国城乡居民中分别有 2.61 亿和 1.67 亿的饮茶者, 日均饮茶量分别为3.19 杯和 2.81 杯, 城乡的茶叶消费普及率分别达到 46.5%和 33.0%, 城镇居民和农村居民的茶叶消费收入弹性分别为 11.19%和 7.9%。 城镇居民参与茶叶消费受年龄和收入影响,农村居民参与茶叶消费受收入和家庭规模影响,城乡居民中男性消费者的饮茶量更多,在茶叶消费量的影响上, 年龄、收入、家庭规模和受教育程度对城乡居民茶叶消费量具有显著的正向影响。 推动中国国内茶叶消费的政策建议是考虑政策的适用性、加快提升城乡居民收入和准确寻找缝隙市场。
关键词: 城乡; 茶叶消费; Double hurdle 模型
中图分类号:TS272.5;F307.12     文献标识码:A     文章编号:1000-369X(2015)04-397-07
 
Comparative Study of Tea Consumption between Urban and Rural Residents in China
GUAN Xi1,2, YANG Jiangfan2
1College of Economics, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China; 2. Institute of Science, Technology and Economics of Tea Industry, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Abstract: Based on the data from China Health and Nutrition Survey in 2011, the paper used double hurdle model to analyze the tea consumption between urban and rural residents, from the perspective of participation of tea consumption and how much to consumes. The results showed there were about 0.261 billion and 0.167 billion tea consumers in urban and rural regions, the corresponding quantities of tea consumed were 3.19 cup and 2.81 cup per day, 46.5% of urban residents and 33% of rural residents drink tea, income elastic of demand for urban and rural residents were 11.19% and 7.9% respectively. The participation of tea consumption of urban residents was influenced by age and income, while the rural residents were affected by income and family size on the participation of tea consumption, male in urban area consumed more cups of tea than female. Age, income, family size and education all showed positive and significant effect on the tea consumption. The corresponding policies to promote tea consumption in China included considering the applicability of policy, speeding up to increase the income of urban and rural residents, finding the niche market.
Keywords: urban and rural, tea consumption, double-hurdle model
 

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